In an effort involving hard-rock tunneling, water containment and extensive community outreach, the $4.45-billion Second Avenue subway’s first phase, which includes two miles of tunnels and three stations, opened on Jan. 1 on Manhattan’s Upper East Side. A joint venture of Schiavone-Shea-Skanska completed work after almost a decade of construction and 80 years in planning. An AECOM-Arup JV managed design, with Parsons Brincerhoff as construction manager.