India said it intends to develop about 125GW of new renewable energy sources by 2030 to boost an ambitious program to use and export green hydrogen, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced earlier this month, also saying that the country’s union cabinet approved $2.4 billion for manufacture of electrolyzers to produce up to 5 million metric tons per year.
The country also has reached tentative deals with the United Arab Emirates to pursue green hydrogen projects and develop connected grids for renewable energy, Reuters said Jan. 15.
Modi said India's program will support green hydrogen R&D and pilot projects to boost decarbonization in end-use sectors such as oil refineries, steel mills and fertilizer plants. “Regions capable of supporting large scale production and/or utilization of hydrogen will be identified and developed as green hydrogen hubs,” he said.
A government spokesman said India's "aim is to establish [itself] as a global hub of green hydrogen," adding that it "will make efforts to get at least 10% of the global demand for green hydrogen [by 2030]."
According to a statement, the government will develop “frameworks” for implementing regulations, public-private R&D partnerships and workforce skill development.
India had 48.5 GW of wind energy, 40GW of solar and 7 GW of nuclear power in place as of last year’s third quarter that could be tapped for green hydrogen production, according to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. It said renewables made up 42.26% of total installed energy generation capacity in India, with a 50% target from non-fossil fuel by 2030 and net zero emissions by 2070.
The ministry also said in a new order that it will expand offshore wind site auctions starting this year to about 8GW of projects annually in eight regions with the highest winds.
The green hydrogen mission will attract public and private sector investment of $96.6 billion by 2030, the ministry said, noting government incentives for electrolyzer manufacture and green hydrogen production.
Private Development Emerges
US-based renewables startup Ohmium International, which designs, manufactures, and deploys an interlocking modular proton exchange membrane electrolyzers, has launched India's first green hydrogen electrolyzer factory at Bengaluru that began shipping its units to the US in late 2021. India-based units of the company and of oil and gas giant Shell also signed an agreement in August to evaluate hydrogen applications, markets, and project opportunities in the country and globally.
"We plan to develop integrated hydrogen hubs to serve industry and heavy-duty transport to be a leading player in this space. We would like to work with Ohmium to make this a productive collaboration,” said Nitin Prasad, chairperson of Shell Group of Cos. in India.
Reliance Industries, Larsen & Toubro, Greenko and H2e Power also last year to announced plans to build gigawatt-scale factories. “We aim to progressively commence transition from grey hydrogen (from natural gas) to green hydrogen by 2025, after proving our cost and performance targets,” Reliance Chairman Mukesh Ambani Chairman said.
The firm said it has lnked with with Denmark renewables company Stiesdal “to speed up cost reduction and commercialization of its pressurized alkaline electrolyzer technology, with plans for a $7.2 billion production omplex in Jamnagar, Gujarat state in west India, which also will include solar energy and and storage systems.
France's TotalEnergies also has an agreement to acquire a 25% interest in India-based Adani New Industries Ltd. that will target production of 1 million metric tons of green hydrogen per year by 2030 and investment of $20 billion over the next decade in renewables.
Tata Power Co. Ltd. and German energy company RWE AG also agreed last year to explore joint development of offshore wind facilities, said S&P.
"We also expect Indian medium and small enterprises to play a dominant role in the opportunities that arise,” Raman Sopory, founder and president pf Aerospace & Defence Consultants Association of India told ENR.
Bur it is unclear how the renewable energy figure relates to a previously announced government goal to have 500 GW of renewable energy by 2030, media reports say.
S&P Global Ratings said last spring that while India has added about 10 GW to 15 GW of renewable capacity annually, the rate "will need to rise by at least double to achieve 50% generation from renewables by 2030." S&P noted the country's lack of comprehensive energy transition policies and "clear commitment" to phase out of coal, as well as need for "significant investment" in transmission and distribution.