ENR staff Some Big BRAC Increases Related Links: GAO June 29 report on BRAC 2005 round's costs BRAC: Total Cost 48% Higher Than Initial Estimate (ENR 4/29/09) The cost of the Dept. of Defense's 2005 base closure round has ended up much higher than planners initially estimated. Increased construction expenses were the major factor, says a Government Accountability Office report.The GAO study, released on June 29, says the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) commission estimated the program's construction and other up-front costs at $21 billion. But in 2011, the 2005 round's final year, DOD pegged those costs at $35.1
Arch dams, classically curved monoliths situated in narrow valleys, are not as common as other types of dams, such as embankment dams and gravity dams. ENR takes a look at some of the biggest arch dams in the world, both completed and under construction.