The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration on Oct. 30 levied the largest proposed fine in its history against oil company BP Products North America for failure to correct hazards associated with a 2005 explosion at its Texas City, Texas, refinery that killed 15 employees of its contractors, Fluor Corp. and Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. About 170 people were injured in the blast. OSHA seeks to fine BP $87.4 million for a total of 270 violations linked to the explosion, plus 439 new willful violations for failing to adopt effective controls on the refinery’s pressure-relief safety system. OSHA and BP
Arch dams, classically curved monoliths situated in narrow valleys, are not as common as other types of dams, such as embankment dams and gravity dams. ENR takes a look at some of the biggest arch dams in the world, both completed and under construction.